PMID: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Feb ;59(2):250-61. Epub 2014 Dec 5. PMID: 25380086 Abstract Title: Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells. Abstract: SCOPE: We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin (Arc) and quercetin (Q) increases the anticarcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer.METHODS AND RESULTS: Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of Arc and Q alone or in combination for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity of Arc was 10- to 20-fold stronger than Q in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arc demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested.CONCLUSION: The combination of Arc and Q that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer.