A review of the biological activities of moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers.

PMID:  Phytother Res. 2015 Jun ;29(6):796-804. Epub 2015 Mar 24. PMID: 25808883 Abstract Title:  Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera. Abstract:  Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable.

Piperine displays the more anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and chemo-protective properties in the DLM induced splenic apoptosis as compared to curcumin.

PMID:  Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015 Mar ;119:16-27. Epub 2015 Mar 10. PMID: 25868812 Abstract Title:  Comparative efficacy of piperine and curcumin in deltamethrin induced splenic apoptosis and altered immune functions. Abstract:  Deltamethrin (DLM) being a potent immunotoxicant affects both humoral and cell mediated immunity. Thus, for the amelioration of its effects, two different bioactive herbal extracts piperine and curcumin are evaluated and their efficacy has been compared. The docking results demonstrated that curcumin has good binding affinity towards CD28 and CD45 receptors as compared to piperine but in vitro studies revealed that piperine is more effective. DLM induced apoptotic markers such as oxidative stress and caspase 3 have been attenuated more significantly by piperine as compared to curcumin. Phenotypic and cytokine changes have also been mitigated best with piperine. Thus, these findings strongly demonstrate that piperine displays the more anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and chemo-protective properties in the DLM induced splenic apoptosis as compared to curcumin. So, piperine can be considered the drug of choice under immunocompromised conditions.

The combination of Arc and Q that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer.

PMID:  Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Feb ;59(2):250-61. Epub 2014 Dec 5. PMID: 25380086 Abstract Title:  Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells. Abstract:  SCOPE: We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin (Arc) and quercetin (Q) increases the anticarcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer.METHODS AND RESULTS: Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of Arc and Q alone or in combination for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity of Arc was 10- to 20-fold stronger than Q in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arc demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested.CONCLUSION: The combination of Arc and Q that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer.

This study suggests that the absence of γ-tocopherol in traditional preparations may be one reason for the lack of consistent salutary effects of vitamin E preparations in clinical trials.

PMID:  Clin Cardiol. 2015 Aug 14. Epub 2015 Aug 14. PMID: 26272221 Abstract Title:  Tocopherols in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis and Related Cardiovascular Disease. Abstract:  Oxidants/antioxidants play an important role in cellular homeostasis. The human body has endogenous molecules that work as antioxidants, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and catalase. Exogenous substances in the diet, such asβ-carotene, ascorbate, and vitamin E, are vital antioxidants. Of these, vitamin E is likely the most important antioxidant in the human diet, and many studies have been performed to elucidate its role in health and disease. Vitamin E is a family of several compounds, of which α-tocopherol is the most widely known analog. α-Tocopherol exhibits antioxidative property in vitro and inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, α-tocopherol shows anti-inflammatory activity and modulates expression of proteins involved in the uptake, transport, and degradation of atherogenic lipids. Though α-tocopherol exhibits important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic features in vitro, α-tocopherol supplements have failed to consistently reduce atherosclerosis-related events in human trials. The conflicting results have led to reconsideration of the importance previously given to α-tocopherol and led to interest in other members of vitamin E family, especially γ-tocopherol, which exerts a much more potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effect than α-tocopherol. This reconsideration has been backed by solid laboratory and clinical research. We suggest that the absence of γ-tocopherol in traditional preparations may be one reason for the lack of consistent salutary effects of vitamin E preparations in clinical trials. This review summarizes our current understanding of tocopherols as antioxidant molecules and emerging evidence of an important role of γ-tocopherol in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease.

Melatonin and selenium induced protective effects against diabetes-induced brain and erythrocyte oxidative injuries.

PMID:  Brain Inj. 2015 Aug 5:1-7. Epub 2015 Aug 5. PMID: 26244700 Abstract Title:  Melatonin and selenium reduce plasma cytokine and brain oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats. Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia-induced progression of brain and erythrocyte oxidative injuries might be modulated by melatonin and selenium as potent antioxidants. The present study was conducted to explore whether melatonin and selenium protect against diabetic brain and erythrocyte oxidative stress levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy rats were equally divided into seven groups. The first and second groups were used as untreated and placebo treated controls. The third group was treated with STZ to induce diabetes. The fourth and sixth groups received 10 mg kg(-1) melatonin. The fifth and seventh groups were treated with 1.5 mg kg(-1) selenium (sodium selenite). The sixth and seventh groups were treated with STZ administered with melatonin and selenium as described for the fourth and fifth groups.RESULTS: Brain and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels and plasma IL-1β and IL-4 levels were high in the STZ group, although they were low in melatonin and selenium treatments. Decreased glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, total antioxidant status, vitamins A and vitamin E values in brain and erythrocyte of STZ group were increased by melatonin and seleniumtreatments.DISCUSSION: Melatonin and selenium induced protective effects against diabetes-induced brain and erythrocyte oxidative injuries through regulation of the antioxidant level and cytokine production.

Carnosic acid appears to alleviate adipocity-related acceleration of colon tumor formation.

PMID:  Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Dec ;58(12):2274-85. Epub 2014 Oct 9. PMID: 25204550 Abstract Title:  Carnosic acid suppresses colon tumor formation in association with antiadipogenic activity. Abstract:  SCOPE: This study determined the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA) for suppressing colon carcinogenesis associated with excess adiposity.METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell growth regulation by CA was evaluated in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To determine the in vivo efficacies, male A/J mice were divided into four groups and fed one of the following experimental diets for 11 wk: 15% fat, 45% fat, 45% fat + 0.01% CA, or 45% fat + 0.02% CA. Azoxymethane was administered at the beginning of experimental diet and two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate were supplied 1 wk after the azoxymethane injection. The proliferation of HT-29 cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 cells was significantly higher than proliferation of control cells (p